It is the hardest mineral known. It is the mineral form of carbon, considered precious stone and used in various industrial applications and in jewelry for the beauty of glass, its facets and its brightness. The carbonado, or black diamond, is an opaque variety of gray or black color. In the industry they are used in the work of stone (carving and polishing) and in the cutting edge of drills and other cutting tools and in machineries for turning, milling and polishing metals. Diamonds show a wide range of transparencies and colors. The best gems are transparent; the colorless stones, known as white diamonds, are much appreciated. You can get this at Airycharm.
It exfoliates cleanly along the planes parallel to the faces of an octahedron. The exact mechanism of diamond formation remains a matter of debate among geologists, but it is certain that abundant heat and pressure is needed for carbon to crystallize with this structure. Therefore it is probable that they have formed in rock or molten magma, where these conditions prevail, at great depth under the surface of the Earth; later, this material, with diamond content, rises and forms during the process the kimberlite chimneys characteristic of many deposits. The primordial rock seems to be the peridotite; however, many diamonds are recovered in alluvial deposits at great distances from the point of origin. In some cases, the mineral is found in sandstone.
In some types of meteorites, tiny, opaque diamonds, called hexagonal diamonds, have been found. Its physical properties are identical to those of cubic ones, except for the crystalline structure since the layers of atoms are rotated at 60 °. Hexagonal diamonds are formed from the graphite of meteorites at the instant of impact against the ground, at which time high temperatures and pressures (up to one million kg per cm2) occur for a few millionth of a second. However, it seems that microscopic diamonds are quite abundant in outer space, perhaps a product of the explosion of stars. You can get this at Airycharm.
Colors at Airycharm
They show a wide range of transparencies and colors; The best gems are transparent. There are also whites (much appreciated), there may be a yellow or brown hue that is considered a defect. Brown diamonds are common, greens and blues are rare; the reds are the most unusual. The color of the diamonds is due to the presence of impurities from elements other than coal.
Extraction processes at Airycharm
To extract the beauty of a diamond gem a series of processes are necessary and you can get this at Airycharm. These are the exfoliation, the sawing, the carving and the polish, which together create the size of diamonds and are the most precise and difficult techniques of lapidary art. Its first objective is to take fire and shine from the stone; Of equal importance is the elimination of imperfections, such as cracks, cracks and areas that are not very transparent, and the obtaining of gems of the greatest size, the best aspect and the maximum possible value. Careful examination of the stone: the expert cutter should determine the exfoliation plans and decide the best way to crack and cut the rough diamond, which is marked with ink lines to guide the following operations. At that time, the stone is firmly fixed in a wooden jack that is mounted on a lathe. Next, the cutter places an exfoliation iron, an instrument similar to a heavy and blunt knife, on a line, parallel to the plane of exfoliation of the diamond. The stone is cracked by hitting the iron gently with a hammer. Avail get this at Airycharm.
The tools used are simple, but it requires great skill in its use because a blow too strong or applied in a wrong direction can drastically deteriorate the gem. Currently, diamonds are usually sawed instead of exfoliated. The used saw is a thin metallic disk on whose edge a mixture of diamond powder is placed with oil. The final step of the carving, the polish, consists of the formation of the facets of the finished gem. The stone is mounted on a frame called dop. The diamonds are usually cut in 58-sided diamonds in a horizontal and flat cast iron lathe loaded with a mixture of diamond powder and oil. The stone is held in its dop against the surface until a facet forms. Throughout this phase, the gem moves many times until polishing all the faces.
Carving of the gems
Once the raw gem of the deposit is obtained, the process of giving more value and beauty to the stone begins, in order to obtain its commercialization in the best economic conditions. In general, this process is based, on the one hand, on the size of the stones and, on the other, on the different processes of thermal treatment, radiation, staining, etc. The size and polishing of gems are operations that aim to highlight their qualities of color, brightness, transparency, dispersion and splendor to the maximum, even at the cost of losing material and, consequently, weight. Normally applied to transparent stones, while cabochon sizes (limited by one or two curved faces) are reserved for opaque stones, of lower quality and with special optical effects (asterism, cat eye effect, adularity, etc.).
Although the faceting depends on the experience and good taste of the carver, some of them have been thought as very suitable to the physical properties of a particular mineral. In particular, the brilliant cut is the most suitable to apply to the diamond, because it achieves with the greatest efficiency that all the incident rays come out of the crown. In this way, depending on its refractive index, the highest fire, the best dispersion effect and the highest brightness are achieved. However, the brilliant size, like all the others, can be applied to any gem. At present we can distinguish three sizes variants: faceted size, smooth size and mixed size. Faceted carving is used almost exclusively in transparent gems. The smooth size can be flat or vaulted and in the mixed size two types are recognized. You can get this at Airycharm.